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THE BIOWORLD BIOME: Our Habitat for All Things Science

Blocking the triple bypass

In cell lines directly generated from patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancers that were resistant to second-generation ALK inhibitors, multiple different bypass resistance mutations ultimately converged on the same signaling mode to increase cell growth.

Researchers have defined five categories of diabetes patients, rather than the longstanding basic division into type 1 and type 2. That is an advance that could better enable health care providers to both combat the most aggressive forms of the disease as well as to help equip them to guide early treatment and prevention efforts in the lowest risk populations.

DIY beta cells

HONG KONG – Scientists at the Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have for the first time confirmed the existence of human pancreatic progenitor cells and have shown they can be induced to develop into glucose-responsive pancreatic beta cells.

CROI 2018

BOSTON – Long-term control of HIV without the need for ongoing antiretroviral therapy (ART), even though it is not a cure, would be a major milestone for HIV treatment. At the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) this week, researchers suggested that it may be possible to find treatments that induce such long-term control, through a combination of ART and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs).

CROI 2018

BOSTON – Curing HIV infection has become a realistic goal, and one of the major areas of HIV research, since the first Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) was held in 1993. But for such a cure to become a reality, it will be necessary to eliminate the viral reservoir.

BOSTON – An individual's microbiome is now recognized as a major factor in health, disease, and the effectiveness of medical treatment. At her Tuesday morning plenary talk at the 2018 Conference for Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Nichole Klatt, assistant professor in the University of Washington's Department of Pharmaceutics, gave an overview of the female vaginal microbiome's role in both HIV infection and treatment.

Feedback loop

In the Feb. 28, 2018, issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill describe an antigen that might enable the cells' use in the majority of cases of glioblastoma multiforme.

The joy of disinhibition

HONG KONG – A Chinese study has shown for the first time that the powerful antidepressant effects of ketamine are due to blockade of rapid neuronal firing in the brain's lateral habenula (LHb) region. Such blockade was found to disinhibit reward centers and relieve depressive symptoms rapidly in animal models.

Killer origami

Researchers led by the National Center for Nano-science Technology (NCNST), Chinese Academy of Sciences, have developed a DNA-based nanorobot and shown in mammals that it is a safe and effective means of delivering targeted cancer treatment in response to a molecular trigger.

Cast Your Vote

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